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魔鬼的艺术,一部令人愉快的恶魔图史

2020-03-23 14:19:44 来源: 艺术家提供 作者:Aida Amoako 
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摘要:德沐的最新著作从根本上暗示了,无论我们如何试图对黑暗之子以一笑置之,对其潜在的恐惧都会持续地激发我们的想象力。多迪·史密斯1948年的小说《我占领城堡》(ICaptureTheCastle)的叙述者卡桑德拉·莫特曼(CassandraMortmain)讽刺道:“魔鬼已经过时了。”70多年后,艺术评论…

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  德沐的最新著作从根本上暗示了,无论我们如何试图对黑暗之子以一笑置之,对其潜在的恐惧都会持续地激发我们的想象力。

  多迪·史密斯1948年的小说《我占领城堡》(I Capture The Castle)的叙述者卡桑德拉·莫特曼(Cassandra Mortmain)讽刺道:“魔鬼已经过时了。”70多年后,艺术评论家和散文家德沐似乎同意,我们对魔鬼的迷恋比以前少了一点。然而,《黑暗王子》仍然保持了集体想象,在《魔鬼的艺术,一部令人愉快的恶魔图史》中:德沐描绘了人物形象的戏剧性演变。

  这本书的主题,宽泛地按时序编排的章节让读者可以追溯到魔鬼视觉图像学的哪些元素自中世纪以来一直存在,哪些已经发生了变化。例如,对于那些试图表现邪恶的艺术家来说,动物性的渲染是一种尝试。这条蛇,让人想起伊甸园里的蛇(在《创世纪》中从未真正说过是魔鬼,但永远与其联系在了一起),出现在安德烈·塞拉诺2011年的同名作品中,蜷缩在十字架上,而弗朗西斯科·戈雅的《女巫安息日》(1798年)则把魔鬼描绘成一只接受儿童祭品的角羊。

  然而,正是这种对魔鬼作为人的描述揭示了一些关于魔鬼在历史上所代表的最有趣的想法。德沐认为,更多的人道主义描绘暗示了圣经中路西法和人类的“共同命运”。他提到了弥尔顿史诗《失乐园》(Paradise Lost)对1891年弗兰兹·冯·斯塔克(Franz von Stick)的绘画《路西法》(Lucifer)的影响,他的沉思的、肌肉发达而徒有其表的形象只有通过他超凡的明亮的眼睛和阴影般的翅膀才能有所区分。

  随着启蒙运动开始的西方的世俗化,魔鬼的意义和表现方式又发生了变化。他成为了人类邪恶的隐喻,具有了更少的宗教内涵,“邪恶多于魔鬼”。直至20世纪日本核战争的毁灭之后,圣安东尼的关于诱惑的故事一直在给予人们灵感。萨尔瓦多达利1946年的解释,“圣安东尼的诱惑”(1946年)传达了一片荒原,黑云侵入荒地,怪诞的马和大象笼罩着虚弱的、赤裸的跪着的安东尼。在马克斯·恩斯特1945年的同名画作中,恶魔布满画面,让圣人惊恐。它们的变形暗示了影响的辐射,因为恩斯特“向我们展示了一种邪恶的形式,能够……把大自然变成一个充满敌意的吞噬一切的怪物。”在达利和恩斯特的解释中,地狱在地球上是我们亲手创造的。

  在其他地方,德沐说明了魔鬼如何与性、欺骗、魅力和享乐主义联系在一起,也使其成为好莱坞魅力和人造物的完美参照。皮埃尔·埃特·吉勒的绘画作品,以杰夫·斯特莱克和玛丽·法兰西等人物的闪光角为主题,强调了集体想象中的魔鬼形象是如何从对其存在的一种真诚的信仰中获得信息,转变为对其象征意义的高度认识和对陈词滥调的讽刺欲望。加里·伯斯曼的《人间欢乐花园》系列描写了魔鬼所有的性冲动和食人冲动,只不过其是一个胖乎乎有三条腿,有箭尾,有角的东西,可爱到足以成为一个收藏品的形象。

  这些图像也说明了恶魔的视觉形象被提炼成一个特定的和非常持久的图像:角。最初的灵感来源于神话中的生物,如潘和塞尔努诺斯,用来象征“魔鬼无法隐藏的他自己的一部分,角如此有效地承载了魔鬼的本质,以至于它们的存在立即将世俗转化为恶毒,就像保罗·索尔伯格(Paul Solberg)的鬼魂照片《我变成什么》(2016)中所做的那样。”。

  在《魔鬼的艺术》中,德沐揭示了这个人物如何变得越来越不可怕。然而,他最终暗示了一种潜在的对魔鬼的恐惧,以及他所代表的东西,继续在我们的想象中助长了魔鬼的形象,无论我们如何试图嘲笑他。

  本书也介绍了中国艺术家王广义、王友身、岳敏君的作品。

The Art of the Devil, a Delightfully Diabolic Illustrated History

Aida Amoako

  Demetrio Paparoni's latest book ultimately hints at how latent fears of the prince of darkness have continued to fuel our imaginations, no matter how much we try to laugh him off.

  "The Devil's out of fashion," quips Cassandra Mortmain, the narrator of Dodie Smith's 1948 novel I Capture the Castle. Over 70 years later, art critic and essayist Demetrio Paparoni seems to agree that we're a little less obsessed with the devil than we once were. However, the Prince of Darkness still has a hold on the collective imagination and in The Art of the Devil: An Illustrated History, Paparoni charts the dramatic evolution of the figure's image.

  The book's thematic but  chronologically broad chapters allow readers to trace which elements of the devil's visual iconography have persisted since the Middle Ages and which have changed. Animalistic renderings, for example, have been a go-to for artists attempting to represent evil. The snake, reminiscent of the serpent in the Garden of Eden (never actually said in Genesis to be the devil but forever associated with him), appears in Andre Serrano's 2011 work of the same name, curled around a crucifix, while Francisco Goya's "Witches' Sabbath" (1798) depicts the devil as a horned goat receiving child sacrifices.

  However, it is the portrayal of the devil as man-like that reveals some of the most intriguing ideas about what the devil has historically represented. Paparoni suggests more humanistic portrayals hint at the biblical"shared destiny" of Lucifer and mankind. He alludes to the influence of Milton's epic poem Paradise Lost when writing of Franz von Stuck's 1891 painting "Lucifer," whose pensive, muscular titular figure is differentiated only by his unearthly bright eyes and shadowy wings.

  With the western secularization that began with the Enlightenment, the meanings and representations of the devil shift again. He becomes a metaphor for human evil, with fewer religious connotations, the "diabolical more than the demonic." The story of the temptation of St Anthony continued to serve as inspiration into the 20th century, after the devastation of nuclear warfare in Japan. Salvador Dali's 1946 interpretation, "The Temptation of St. Anthony" (1946) conveys a wasteland on which black clouds encroach and grotesque horses and elephants loom over a frail, naked kneeling Anthony. In Max Ernst's 1945 painting of the same title, demons overrun the canvas terrorizing the saint. Their deformation suggests the effects of radiation as Ernst "shows us a form of evil capable of... turning nature into a hostile all-devouring monster." In both Dali and Ernst's interpretations hell is here on earth created by our own hands.

  Elsewhere, Paparoni illustrates how the devil's association with sex, deceit, charm, and hedonism has also made him a perfect reference for Hollywood's glamour and artificiality. Pierre et Gilles's painted photographs of subjects like Jeff Stryker and Marie France in glittery horns emphasizes how the images of the devil in the collective imagination have morphed from being informed by an earnest belief in his existence to reflecting a hyper-awareness of his symbolic meanings and a desire to satirize clichés. Works like Gary Baseman's Garden of Earthly Pleasures series depict the devil with all his sexual and anthropophagous impulses, except he is a chubby three-legged, arrow-tailed, horned thing cute enough to be a collectible figure.

  What these images also speak to is the distilling of the devil's visual iconography into one specific and very persistent image: horns. Originally inspired by mythical creatures like Pan and Cernunnos, and used to symbolize"one part of himself that the devil fails to hide," the horns so effectively carry the essence of the devil that their presence immediately transforms the mundane into the malevolent as they do in Paul Solberg's haunting photograph "What I've Become" (2016).

  With The Art of the Devil, Paparoni reveals how the figure became increasingly less terrifying. Yet he ultimately hints at a latent fear of the devil and what he represents that has continued to fuel the image of the devil in our imaginations, no matter how much we try to laugh him off.

  The Art of the Devil: An Illustrated Historyby Demetrio Paparoni (Abrams Books, 2019) is now available via bookshop.

(责任编辑:陈思竹)

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推荐关键字 Aida Amoako 王广义
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