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“寂然通睿、宁静致远”苏新平的版画艺术

2007-03-06 14:19:27 来源: 雅昌艺术网专稿 作者:高名潞
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摘要:或许是因为我曾在内蒙古大草原生活放牧达五年之久的缘故,没曾见到来自内蒙古的画家和表现蒙古族题材的作品,总是倍感亲切。记得数年前在呼和浩特初次见到苏新平的木刻作品时,就一下子被其朴茂的风格、天然的力度和生活的趣味所打动。那时新平以毕业于天津美术学院版画系两年,正在内蒙古师范大学美术系任教。翌年,他又考…

  或许是因为我曾在内蒙古大草原生活放牧达五年之久的缘故,没曾见到来自内蒙古的画家和表现蒙古族题材的作品,总是倍感亲切。记得数年前在呼和浩特初次见到苏新平的木刻作品时,就一下子被其朴茂的风格、 天然的力度和生活的趣味所打动。那时新平以毕业于天津美术学院版画系两年,正在内蒙古师范大学美术系任教。翌年,他又考入中央美术学院版画系攻读硕士学位研究生,于是得以常常见面。没有新作,他必携来共赏。新平为人宽厚,不善词令亦不苟言笑,甚而近于木纳,但性情却极温和。每逢对坐,倘有共识之言,亦只会心一笑,随即相顾无言,这颇像蒙古民族的交流方式,我也以为,新平虽非蒙族,却深得蒙古人平淡、寂然的神髓,而苏新平的作品之所以能超拔于众多少数民族题材的作品之上,恐怕也与其秉性气质不无关系。

  当然,苏新平的创作并非完全是随机性和纯感性的。他的创作历程显示了很强的控制性和主观性。无论就某一时期的创作意图而言,还是从其不同时期作品的发展变化来看,都反映出苏新平力图超越时尚和超越自身的强烈愿望。七十年代末,八十年代初,中国画坛上唯美、矫饰风格盛行,同时以边疆异域的风情为题材的绘画也成为时尚,这时期在美术学院学习和刚刚步入创作状态中的苏新平也难免被这种时尚所笼罩。这时期他创作了一批以蒙古族生活为题材的木刻版画。但是,天然的朴茂气质和对生活现象的敏锐透视是他的木刻作品获得了自然而然的朴拙效果,与当时众多为变形而变形的作品相比较,其作品的“超形式”意味给我留下了深刻的印象。

  1986年,苏新平到中央美术学院版画系深造,他默默的沉寂于是版画创作之中。不知何故,石版画在中国一直属于未开垦的处女地,尽管他以是国际版画艺苑中久已有之的形式。或许,企业经得近于枯燥的语言和心理治理体力缺一不可的创作和操作特征都使其作品有“吃力不讨好”之嫌从而让中国艺术家怯步,新平大约寂寞了一年之久,忽一日,摆在我面前一批石版画作品,我看到新平的艺术世界变了。变得冷静深邃了。照样还是以往的马、牛、羊、牧人形象,新平却将他(它)们孤立而又有机地、动态化而又非情节性的“悬止”起来,并赋予其细腻而又强烈的光影效果,从而获得了许多可填充的文化含义和心理现象。

  新平就这样不断的演绎着母题,变幻着空间。至1989年,完成了这一阶段的系列组画。新平从小生于内蒙,离开内蒙古后每年也必到大草原一趟,他自有独特的感受,这感受与世代生活在草原的牧民不一样,可能与我曾经在草原生活五年的感受也不同。但是,我能从其作品中悟道,感受到蒙古族人的自然意识、心理状态和生存空间的特点。《三匹白马》描绘的是马,也是人,不疾不徐,无怨无恨得寂然远行,不分昼夜,不知归宿而最终悄然寂于天地之间,这时我想起“天降将大任于斯人也…….”的古训,但没有那么理性。这是自然的负重意识,这马简直就是蒙古民族的象征。这里“马”的象征含义已远非以往那些旨在浪漫抒情和栩栩如生的世俗之马所能及。《躺着的男人和远去的白马》似乎将这一象征推向哲学化。走向深处之马和延伸的马椿是四时并运的劳作历程得象征。而躺着的男人则是无为的自然意识的象征;思辨在睡眠,梦境亦不在。这是伤感的自然观,但不是悲观的厌世哲学。又如《草原之家》,画中尽管描绘了所有的家庭成员,但并没有解释它们之间的交流内容和集中的情节,构图似乎是非中心的,画中人物的关注点也是非中心的,这种松散、自然的现象却极像蒙古族的家庭观念。蒙古族没有汉族那样完整而源远流长的家庭伦理观念,他们的家庭观念是自然主义的;人的繁衍生息与大自然的四季轮转相符相应,人是天之骄子,而非上帝子民。固蒙族信封的宗教---从撒满到密宗也是关于自然神的宗教,而非死和上帝的宗教。

  天地悠悠,日月轮转。这博大的运动空间和绵远的时间流恐怕是任何文字和绘画都难以描述的。蒙古人是以无言以悟对,静寂以关照,默然以顺化的态度对待这天地空间和时间历程的。苏新平或许感到了这“无言”、“默然”、“孤寂”、“单调”等心理时空的特点,遂全力调动其绘画语言的诸要素----光影、透视、造型去描绘它。

  苏新平作品的空间是想象的,主观的。因为,天际线是虚拟的;光影是自造的,方向与强弱视需要而定;天幕永远是黑的,地表永远是白的;三维性的焦点透视的外观是假的,造型和投影都可以局部完整地展示,故而贯穿着平面散点透视的逻辑。画中人物形象的视点是非集中的,互无关联的……,所有这些“手段”都为我们提供了一个个虚幻然而又似乎真实的场景。也正是这虚幻与真实相间造成的困惑引发人们对蒙古人的生活状态进行历史的和超越生活经验的联想。这种联想清除了以往“风情”式的表层文化投影,从而可能与民族的深层文化意识相悟对。

  但是艺术家的意愿并非使自己的作品成为教科书。艺术家的责任是使自己真诚的心灵面对同样真诚的作品,故而,他指对自己的作品负责。于是,作品的文化含义和精神意蕴首先是在艺术家和自己的作品之间交流并产生的,但并非是从艺术家到作品这样的单项输入,而是在不断反馈与修正的感应过程中完成的。

  这是检验艺术家是否真诚的关键所在,这也是艺术家成功的关键。

  正是这关键是苏新平走向了下一个阶段。从1990年开始,新平又创作了一批在外观上似乎与上一阶段无大变化的石版画作品。但我从这些作品中,又看到了蒙古民族的另一个心理世界,如果说,上阶段的作品还重于“客观”地复述和追想蒙古人的意识、心理和生活状态的话,那么,这批新作则更具体的进入了蒙古族的现实心里中的某一个侧面。比较而言,上一阶段的作品含义好似线和面,而这批新作则是点。就在这“点”中,我又强烈的感到了苏新平得心理和感受,这时,新平已不再像上一阶段那样,在作品中回避 “我”的色彩。

  甚至,我看到了身着蒙古袍仰面沉思的苏新平的形象(见《疲倦的男人》)。我从所有的新作中都看到了“荒诞”与“宿命”的意味。所有的形象都似乎是着了魔。连续与复数的形式逻辑使所有人物形象的运动都带有无休止与单循环的节奏。当自然的意志或者社会人生的惯性力强大的简明而单一以后,就有了宿命,因为所有的一切都是先定的,偶然与个体是无能为力的,个体唯有服从,然而照样艰辛。那《行走的男人》和《空旷的草地》之一、《路人》都似乎在昭示着这种哲理。而《影子》、《夏日》、《空旷的草地》之二等作品则直接道出了荒诞的“事实”。

  从某种意义上讲,荒诞与宿命是极度清醒的产物。宿命离不开荒诞,宿命是认可,荒诞是反抗。

  苏新平的这批作品的空间更加抽象和不具体。无谓天地,勿论日月。画中人物多位同一或同类形象,趋于单一,光影更为简洁、神秘,特别突出了阴影的非真实感和动感。更重要的是,强化了前一阶段既有的人物运动方向的内在连续性和逻辑性。我们似乎可以从画中人不同的匍匐、站立、行走的姿势中演绎推断出某种连贯而规律性的匍匐、站立、行走的节奏,一旦演义与推断出这规律,也就解破了这“荒诞的”规律。

  天地恒在,日月长存。然而在这事件与空间中生活的人类却常常对某一自然而又特殊的现象给以特别的关注,从而产生出诸如“惊悸”、“惊喜”、“惊奇”、“惊慌”等等心理,我在新平近作《影子之一》和《飘动的白云》等作品中看到了这一心理现象。这同“与天地冥合”的境界相反,乃是“天问”的境界。冥合是顺化,天问是反抗。顺化并不自觉到宿命,而反抗则甚于荒诞与宿命的哀叹。

  我想,新平的新作给我的意味与感受或许就是新平对古老的游牧民族进入现代时空中所面临的矛盾与困惑的反映,抑或是新平对这平淡悠然而又过于坚韧的忍耐力所导致的顺化惰性的叹惋,更可能是新平的主观心理和社会性意识在异族生活母题中的寄寓。但到底是哪方面的意图其主要作用,或则是各方面意图都有,这一问题已无关紧要。重要的是新平的作品本身为我们提供了索证,和填充这些意味角度与空白。更重要的是这意味具有当代文化的启示价值。简单的价值判断是肤浅的,隐秘而丰富的暗示和引发某种价值意向是艺术家的职业特征和社会责任。而一旦艺术家通过其丰富的感性完成了意向的抒发,他也就获得了当代文化意义和价值,这时他的题材和视角也就被文化价值和艺术价值所超越,我以为,新平蒙古族题材的版画作品正是致力于并臻于此。

  新平不是爱张扬和时时憧憬着“爆炸”效应的画家。他的作品在外观上也算不得“前卫”。但是,他时时清楚并设计着自己的耕耘范围,与其说他不时关注着身边涌动的大潮,倒不如说他更为关注着自身发展的逻辑。而一旦他为自己设立了一个符合当代新艺术的最高准则,同时又遵循自身逻辑而稳步向他迈进时,实际上他也已跻身于时代大潮之中。

  在1985年至1987年新潮美术兴起和高涨时期,苏新平默默思索创作,自甘寂寞了几年,1989年2月他参加了首届《中国现代艺术展》,4月获台湾《中国大陆青年版画家大展》第一大奖,同年7月参加《第七届全国美展》并获铜奖,1990年其作品分别被英国“大英博物馆”和美国“亚洲太平洋博物馆”收藏,同年又获全国青年版画展览一等奖,此后他成为有成果的现代青年画家之一。新平同画坛上其它来自学院的青年画家的创作活动共同构成了一种美术现象,我们姑且称之为中国现代艺术中的“改良主义”现象。这批画家旨在既保留新潮美术的内核,同时又扬弃他太富于浪漫激情,从而使主体意志膨涨最终导致作品的概念化和粗糙化的弊端,充分运用和开发学院主义的语言,从而创造出一种文化性和艺术性相统一的现代艺术作品。我们从苏新平的作品中可以看到这种特征。苏新平的作品,特别是早期作品还带有肯特的影子,也有1985年兴起的“理性绘画”的超现实意味和宗教感,后期作品的“黑色幽默”意味也与新潮美术中的“灰色幽默”、“红色幽默”意味遥相呼应。但是,新平以其娴熟的版画技巧,谨严的造型功力和控制构图光影的能力使这些幽默意味得以自然含蕴于作品之中。当然,形式技巧的完善是有限度的,否则会破坏意味,失去自然的要旨,人云“见好就收”既是此理。恐怕摆在新平,同时也是摆在所有致力于“改良”的现代艺术家未来创作历程面前的最大课题即是这“自然”之度。

  因而,可以说艺术中没有“纯真之眼”只有“自然”之度。臻于此度,即至语言即意味,意味即语言的境地。我想新平憧憬并在进入这一境地。

我不知新平下一阶段和更久远的作品将是何种面貌,它们或许让我吃惊,但可能又符合我内心里为其推测演绎的逻辑。不管怎样,我深深感到,新平的身上永远有一种无言的张力,那就是他那时时旋动内而又不激励于外的超越时尚和超越自身的愿望和能力。超越即赖此愿望和能力。超越即成功之母。

Far- Leading Silence and Tranquility —The prints of Su Xinping
by Gao Minglu, March 1991, Beijing

In part due to my own experience of five years living on the Inner Mongolian Grasslands, I feel all the more intimate whenever I meet with painters from Inner Mongolia or see works that represent Mongolian subjects.  Years ago, when I first saw the woodcuts of Su Xinping in the city of Huhhot, I was moved by his simplicity in style, power in naturalness and interest in life. At the tiem, Xinping was teaching at the Fine Arts Department of Inner Mongolia Normal University, and it had been two years since he graduated from the Prints Department of Tianjin Academy of Fine Arts.  The next year, he was admitted to the Central Academy of Fine Arts of a M.A. degree. Since then, we have had the chance to have infrequent meetings, during which he brings new works for me to enjoy.  His character is generous, amiable, and with a gentle disposition as he is also serious, quiet and slow of speech.  While we are sitting together, every time he finds something in common with me, he smiles but does not say anything. This is quite like the way in which the Mongolians communicate. I sense that he is as innocent and quiet in spirit as the Mongolians. Though he is not a Mongolian in nationality, his work transcends the work of many others that feature minority nationalist subjects. This must be in part related to his character and personality.
The art works of Xinping are not, however, done completely at random.  His course of artistic creation shows a strong sense of control and subjectivity.  Both his approach and changes in style during his different artistic periods reflects a strong desire to continually surpass his current style in order to transcend himself.  From the end of the 1970s to the beginning of the 1980s, Aesthetic and Mannerist styles were a popular style among Chinese painters, and exotic frontiers became a popular subject.  Xinping was also a part of this style, as during this period he was at college and had just started to create, making a series of woodcuts with the subject matter being mainly of the Mongolian life. However, these woodcuts stood out in comparison to the works of others', as they were imbued with his own character, resulting in an effect of natural simplicity.  This, compared to the works of his contemporaries who distorted for distorting sake, made a deep impression on me with its "transformable" significance.
In 1986, Xinping entered the Central Academy of Fine Arts, and from then on became deeply involved in the working of lithography. Strangely enough, the art of lithography has long been present in (though it is longer in existence in the international print fields).  Perhaps the reason lies in the fact that it is a working process, which requires an investment of the mind as well as physical energy. This tends to amount to a lot of strenuous efforts with no results, which deters Chinese artists from pursuing it.  After one year of this work, Xinping came to me with a series of lithography. His works had changed to ones that reflected a calm and profound artistic world. The subject matters of his works were horses, cows, sheep and shepherds, all were solitary, yet dynamically invested with much cultural significance highlighted by a deliberate use of light and dark. By 1989 Xinping had accomplished a series of works that continued in this way of deducing motifs and alternating space.
Xinping was born in Inner Mongolia and would go back there at least once in a year ever since he left.  This experience gave him a peculiar affection, which differs from that of the shepherds who have lived on the grasslands for generations and probably from that of my own five-year experience on the grasslands.  Yet I can still realize and understand the characteristics of the Mongolian attitude to nature, their state of mind and living space in his works. His work 'What Three White Horses' describes is not a horse, but a man instead. In the work, both are silently walking towards the far distance, neither quick nor slow, traveling both by day and night, not knowing the destination and looking as though they were quietly disappearing between the heaven and the hearth.  This recalls to my mind the old saying that heaven entrusts man with an important task. Even though the work does not prove to be that rational, it reflects the consciousness of burden of nature and the horse symbolizes Mongolian nationality.  Here the significance of 'horse' reaches far beyond the representation of sophisticated and vivid depictions of horses of romantic lyricism. Another work of Xinping's "Lying Man and Distant- going White Horse" appears to be instead of a philosophical sense. The distant-going horse and the distant-extending hike signify the laboring process through the four seasons, while the lying man symbolizes the inactive consciousness of nature.  It is a sentimental view of nature, but at the same time, it is not a pessimistic philosophy of world-weariness. In the work 'In a Family on the Grasslands', the artist portrays all the members of the same family, but does not explain the communicating content among them nor offer an obvious plot.  The composition appears to be non-centered and the focal points of the figures- their loose and natural quality- is just like the Mongolian idea of family. 
The Mongolian nation does not have such a complete and long-running ethical concept of family as the Han. Their family idea is one of naturalism, which believes that the life cycle of man is in correspondence with the running of the four seasons of nature, and that man is the favored son of God rather than his subject.  For this reason, the religion of the Mongolian- from the 'Saman' to the 'Mizong'- is one of living and deism instead of death and God.
Longstanding is the heaven and the earth, and the sun and moon are long-running. So vast are the space of movement and remote the stream of time that it is difficult to express them in any literal or pictorial means.  In order to understand, observe and obey, the Mongolian nation assumes an attitude of silence to the universal progress of space and time. Su Xinping went to great lengths with his pictorial language- light and shade, perspective and modeling- in order to describe such characteristics.
The space in Xinping's works is imaginative and subjective, as the horizontal line is suppositional: the light and shade is invented, the direction and intensity of which depend on the artist's desire. The sky is always black while the ground is ever white, while three-dimensional perspective imitates the image. The modeling and projection can be shown in complete details, and there is the perspective is not in focus. The viewing points of the figures do not come to the centre, but tend to be irrelative to one another.  All these result in an illusory yet realistic scene. And the confusion caused by the mixing of illusion with reality leads to a historical and transcendental association of the living condition of the Mongolian.  Such an association may lead to a better understanding of the deeper consciousness of national culture. 
However, an artist never wishes his work to function as a textbook.  What he does is face his work with his own heart; therefore his is responsible only for his own heart, and therefore he is responsible only for his own work.  In this way, the cultural and spiritual significances of an artistic work are communication between the artist and his work first. It is not a one-way relationship from the artist to his work, but rather an interactive progress of constant feedback and revision.
This is the key that leads an artist to success.
And it is this key that Su Xinping moves into with his next stage.  Since 1990, he has made a series of lithographs, which, judged by their appearances, seem to be not quite different from those of the last period.  But I find them to be in another psychological world of the Mongolian nation.  If his works of the former period paid attention to 'objectivity' repeating the consciousness, the psychology and living condition of the Mongolian, these new works have more specifically penetrated into certain aspects of their real psyche.  Simply speaking, the works of the last period are much simpler, while those of the new period are points of interest.  In these 'points', I strongly feel Xinping's psychology and emotions towards them.  What differs here from the last period is that Xinping no longer tries to avoid the self in his work.
Like in the 'Tired Man' (an image of Xinping dressed in Mongolian robe deep in thought with his face upward) there is a sense of absurdism and fatalism in all the new pieces.  Every image seems to have been bewitched.  The formal logic of continuity and complexity endows the image with rhythms of endlessness.  Everything is destined and no individual is capable of action.  Individuals obey their role, even though they are undergoing hardships. 'The Walking Man', No. 1 of the Open Grasslands series and 'The Passerby' seem to be declaring this, while 'The Shadow', 'A Summer Day' and No. 2 of the 'Pen Grasslands' series declare instead the absurdity of these facts. In some sense, absurdism and fatalism are products of an extreme sobriety.  Fatalism never departs from absurdism.  Fatalism means improvement while absurdism means resistance.
The space in Su Xinping's new works is more abstract and non-specific.  No assumed distinction can be asserted between the sky and the ground or between the sun and the moon.  Images of the figures are identical or of the same kind.  Light and shade becomes more simplified and mysterious, with a sense of hollowness.  What is more significant is an intensification of the internal continuity and logicality in the movement of the figures, which we have already seen in the last period.  Now it seems that we can deduce certain rhythms from the gestures of continuous and regular crawling, standing or walking.  Once it is deduced, it seems absurd. 
Heaven and earth are eternal, and the sun and moon are permanent, this is the belief of the Mongolians. For those that live in such space and time, they often pay special attention to some natural but particular phenomenon, resulting in psychological feelings of fear, pleasure, wonder, nervousness and so on.  This psychological phenomenon is present n Xinping's recent works like No. 1 of 'The Shadow' series and Floating White Clouds.  Contrary to the Mongolian ideal of 'profoundly blending with the universe', it shows instead the idea of 'interrogating the Heaven'.  To blend is to obey while to interrogate means to rebel.  And to obey is not necessarily to be conscious of fatality, while to rebel is based on acknowledgements of this absurdity and fatality.  To me, Xinping's new works display his reflections on the contradiction and confusion that this ancient nomadic nation is confronted with when entering modern time and space. What is really important is that Xinping's works themselves produce clues about these significant sentiments of the Mongolians.  More importantly, these significances are enlightening for contemporary culture- which is a social responsibility of an artist. Once he fulfills this expression, the artist will attain significance and value in contemporary culture.  It is this goal, I think, that Xinping's prints of Mongolian subject matters are devoted to.
Xinping is not the kind of painter who is keen on being widely known, and his works do not seem to be 'avant-garde' in their outward qualities.  But he is at times designing his own realm of cultivation, and cares less about the artistic trends around him than about the logic of his own development.  However, this makes him in fact- very involved in the currents of the time.
During the period of the years from 1985 to 1987, 'the New Trend Art' happened, but Su Xinping worked alone and in silence. But by the year 1989, his talent began to show him as a promising artist.  In February 1989, he participated in the first 'China Avant-Garde Exhibition' and in April he was awarded the First Prize of 'the Grand Exhibition of Prints by Young Artists from the Mainland' which was held in Taiwan, and in July of the same year, he took part in 'the Seventh National Exhibitions of Fine Arts' and won the Bronze.  In1990, some of his works were collected by the Museum of Great Britain and the Asian- Pacific Museum of the U.S.A, and in the same year, Xinping won the First Prize of 'the National Exhibition of Prints by Young Artists'.  He is now known as a promising young painter of great achievements.  The artistic activities of Xinping together with other young painters from academics constitute a kind of artistic phenomenon, which we may tentatively call 'the Reformism' in the modern art of . The main purpose of this group of artists is to preserve the kernel of 'the New Trend Art' but at the same time, discard its disadvantages for favoring romantic passions. They also strive to allow the subjective mind to expand so much so that it results in the conceptualization as well as crudity of works, and to create modern works by fully utilizing and developing the academic language.  These qualities can be found in the works of Su Xinping, although his works, especially those of the early period, might cause a vague recollection of Kent and have the sense of surrealism and religion that is characteristic of 'Rational Painting' which emerged in 1985.  There is of course, a limit to the perfection of formal techniques; otherwise it will destroy its significance and lose the idea of naturalness, the reason of which is well exemplified by the saying 'Stop where you feel perfect'.  The main problem which will confront Xinping and those modern artists who are devoted to reformation, is this kind of limit.  For this reason, we may say that in art, there is no 'eye of purity and innocence' but only the 'limit of nature'. If one uses this limit, he will arrive at a state of understanding and realization that 'Language is the significance, and significance is the language'. 
I believe that Xinping is entering this state and looks forward to doing so.
It is hard for me to foresee Xinping's works in his next or future stages.  Perhaps they will shock me, but at the same time be similar to the impressions I have from his existing works.  Regardless, what Xinping impresses me with the most is his silent tension that declares his internal desire to transcend artistic styles and himself. 
His transcendence relies on this desire as well as his capability.
Transcendence is the ultimate success.

(责任编辑:刘晓琳)

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