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世界之外看世界---张雨方艺术中的大生命意识

2011-05-17 09:49:29 来源: 《张雨方作品集》 作者:王志亮
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摘要:张雨方先生这次展览展出了他1977年到2010年创作的两百余件绘画作品。作品主题涉及风景写生、画室写生、主题创作等多种题材。两百余件跨越三十年余年的作品,不仅再现出张雨方先生个人的绘画历程,也从某一个侧面展示了中国艺术史发展的一角。张雨方先生的创作成熟于八十年代中期,体现着那个时代的精神理想。这种理…

  张雨方先生这次展览展出了他1977年到2010年创作的两百余件绘画作品。作品主题涉及风景写生、画室写生、主题创作等多种题材。两百余件跨越三十年余年的作品,不仅再现出张雨方先生个人的绘画历程,也从某一个侧面展示了中国艺术史发展的一角。张雨方先生的创作成熟于八十年代中期,体现着那个时代的精神理想。这种理想又在他近几年的作品中得到了延续。我们总是能够在张雨方先生的作品看到一种超越个体生命的大生命意识,这种意识具体表现为一种延绵的生命感和追求彼岸的超越意识。

  柏格森认为人生命的本质即是延绵(duration),在人生命延绵的过程中,形成了和生命同一的时间。这里的生命之延绵与时间之流动也是张雨方绘画中的主题之一。张雨方两次进入西安美术学院学习,第二次入校学习的经历直接影响了他后来的创作风格。那段时间里,他无疑是学校里的前卫。张雨方很有意识地选择了原始陶器纹样作为自己创作灵感的来源与作品的图式成分。在1979年的两张名为《无题》的水墨画中,这种原始感已明晰可见。在后来的创作中,这些原始陶器的纹样并没有成为艺术家具象表现的符号,而是被转化为一种深沉的生命意识。扭曲、厚重、空灵的人物面相在画面中不断出现。画面的深沉、凝重感似乎凝固着一股往外爆发的生命力。这不是柏格森所谓的直觉的生命力,而是加入了民族文化积淀的沉甸甸的生命感。1980年创作的《轮回》、《命运》、《有角的人》、《信教的人们》等都是这类精神的代表之作。我们需要留意每件作品中那一颗颗凝视着的眼睛。1980年作品《昨天、今天,明天》那三只具象的眼睛已经融入后来作品的细节中,但是他们依然窥视着整个世界。一双双眼睛不仅是画中灵魂的眼睛,也是艺术家的在世之眼。艺术家通过它们凝视那个年代。1981年作品《玩偶》和《我们、它们》中,艺术家对眼睛的描绘尤为重要。玩偶的他者性质通过两个非对称的眼睛被再现的淋漓尽致,这是玩偶无可奈何的标志。《我们,它们》中偏左下角的眼睛在凝视着观者,透出的是一丝期待与沮丧。每一个眼神都必定寄居于一个实体。张雨方作品中的眼睛所寄居的肉体是非现世的肉体,它们来自彼岸,或更准确的是说,来自他选择的原始时代。艺术家跨时空的从原始时代借取了一个个实体,用他们来凝视现代社会。艺术家所要表达的不是此时此地个人生命的直觉和冲动,而是大生命的延绵。个人生命有始有终,大生命却是永恒。这或许就是生命的自由。这时生命的自由流动也以另一种形式表现出来。从1980年《挤压的空间》开始,一直到2008年的《海啸》,在这些作品中,艺术家普遍采用了柔性的曲线去表达生命的流动特征。当然,他并非仅仅直接描绘作为生命存在的人,更多的是描绘被赋予灵魂的万物。1983的《海神》、《二个青鸟》、《丛林》中,树林、鸟和水都被赋予了生命和灵魂。它们也是整个世界延绵的生命存在。

  延绵之下存在的永恒、流动的生命感稍加理性的转换便成为彼岸意识。这种冷静但又上升的意识在1980《蓝色的夜》中已经表现出来。画面采取平涂的方法,塑造了一个并不存在的夜晚。右下角两个幽灵般的形象,左上方一轮蓝色弯月,规矩的投影,一个超现实的环境蕴含着对生命的沉思。这种沉思是冷静的,它不再借助富于表现性的原始生命形体,而是得力于画面的整体环境。1981年《自我》中拱形墙下那阴沉的面孔必定在诉说着什么。艺术家用这种冷静的超现实主义手法建构了不同的场景,其中之一是梦境般的夜晚,另外是原始精神与基督精神相混合的荒蛮空间,再者是这两类的集合。《飞进我房中的陨石》和《喂,你能征服地球吗?》是艺术家思维自由的体现。但紧接着,这样的场景被注入了一股原始的荒蛮精神。一叶扁舟、广阔的大海和荒芜的大地,这些元素都在预示着顽强生命力的在场。这些作品中不仅一次的出现孤零零的房子,像是原始部落的帐篷。房子的具体形状已经不重要,重要是他在画中作为人类精神的居所而存在。1983年《走向圆形住屋的人》便是灵魂走向归处的表现。1983年《夜祭》和《无题》中,猫头鹰成为画面的主角,它们是黑夜的立法者,在黑夜里享有充分的自由,窥视着已经沉睡的人类世界。80年代正是尼采、萨特等西方文化流行的年代。艺术家在画面中也表现出了基督教精神。这种精神又与艺术家骨子里的原始生命感融为一体。

  从1985年到2004年,张雨方虽然作品不多,但是依然断断续续进行创作,直到2004年艺术家从风景入手再度找寻八十年的生命精神。可以看到,在他后期的创作中,这种生命精神没有丝毫减弱。作品中深度生命的表现,对于今天的当代艺术来说,意义不言而喻。但是,在上个世纪八十年初,这些作品意味着什么呢?1981年张雨方作为主要组织者策划了《西安首届现代艺术展》,其中我们今天看到的很多作品都参加了那次展览。那次展览引起了很大的反响,通过张雨方的作品,观众可以尝试想象当时展览的主体基调。当人们还沉浸在伤痕乡土绘画、形式美、抽象艺术的争论中时,一种直指生命本源的艺术已经出现。同样,张雨方的这些作品也不同于星星画会和无名画会的作品。星星画会作为一次艺术事件,使得中国当代艺术中的体制问题暴露无疑,他们更多是以一些带有政治题材的作品引起社会的关注。而无名画会则固守着绘画的本体精神。他们在一幅幅风景中注入自己的全部生命。张雨方作为西北地区的一位个体艺术家,选择的是另一条不同的创作路径。他将现代主义的形式、西北的传统文化、西方的理性精神、自我的生命意识融合在一起。充满原始生命力的形体、广袤的大地、流动的海洋,这些形象都是艺术家对个体解放和生命自由意识的表达。

                    王志亮 中国人民大学哲学院 博士生

  A View from Outside of the World—The Great Consciousness Conveyed in Artworks of Zhang Yufang

  By Wang Zhiliang, doctoral student of School of Philosophy, Renmin University of China

  In this exhibition, Zhang Yufang displayed over 200 pieces of works he completed between 1977 and 2008. The works cover multiple subjects, including landscape sketches, studio sketches and themed paintings. The 200-plus works, span over 30 years of Zhang Yufang's artistic life, they not only reflect the process of his personal artistic creation, but also to some extent, reveal the development of contemporary Chinese art. Zhang Yufang's creations were well-developed in 1980s and reflected the spirit and ideals of that time. We may find these ideals come back alive in his recent works. We will always pay our attention to certain great consciousness in his works, which can be interpreted as a sense of life going on and the pursuit of a spirit realm beyond the mundane life.

  Bergson believes that the nature of life is but duration, in which time forms to become the same of life. The duration of life and flow of time, as we refer to here, are also themes throughout paintings of Zhang Yufang. Zhang Yufang embarked on study journeys twice in Xi'an Academy of Fine Arts. The learning experience of the second time in the Academy directly exerted an influence upon his later artwork.

  During that time, he was undoubtedly a vanguard on campus. Zhang Yufang deliberately selected primitive pottery pattern as the source of inspiration and symbols of his works. In two ink and wash works named Untitled in 1979, we find such obvious primitive sense. In his later works, these primitive patterns do not serve as representative symbols of the artist, but are transformed into a profound sense of life. The twisted, massive and vacant faces of the figures repeatedly appear in the painting. The paintings, with deep and imposing sense, seem to embrace a force of life bursting outward. This is not what Bergson called the intuitive force of life, but a strong sense of life that merges cultural connotation of the people. Transmigration, Fate, Men with Horns and Believers, all created in 1980, are representativeworks of such spirit. We need to pay attention to staring eyes in each piece of work. His 1980 work Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow has three expressive eyes, which have merged into details of his later works while kept staring at the entire world. These eyes, staring beyond the paintings, symbolize the eyes of the artist on the mundane world. Through these eyes, the artist looks at the times they belong to. In 1981 works Dolls and We, They, the artist has even stronger touch on eyes. The nature of the other of the dolls can find full expression in the two unsymmetrical eyes, which symbolize the helpless status of the dolls. The eye on the lower left corner of We, They is staring at audience, revealing slight expectation and frustration. Each expression in the eyes must dwell in an entity. Eyes in Zhang Yufang's works do not dwell in bodies of the current time, they came from another world, or from primitive times he chose, to be more exact. The artist travels through time and space, and borrows entities from the primitive times one after another, using them as the subject for observing the modern society. What the artist wishes to convey is not intuition and impulse of individual lives of the current time and space, but duration of something larger than life. Life of individuals will end, as they have starts, but those larger than life will embrace eternity. Perhaps it is the freedom of life and the free flow of life can be represented through another form. From Squeezed Space in 1980 to Tsunami in 2008, works between the years will tell that the artist generally use soft curves to express the flowing nature of life. Of course, he does not depict human as individual beings, but everything with souls. In his 1983 works Poseidon, Two Bird Messengers and Jungle,woods, birds and water are endowed with life and souls. They are the living duration of the entire world.

  With a slight rational transition, eternity existing within duration and the sense of flowing life can be turned into a consciousness of the other realm. Such sober but soaring consciousness sprouted as early as in the 1980 work The Blue Night. With flat brushing, the painting depicts a night that does not exist. Two ghostly images on the lower right corner and a blue crescent on the upper left corner present a regular projection of a surrealistic environment that contains meditation for life. Such meditation is dispassionate. It does not seek help form expressive primitive form of life, but relies on the overall environment of the layout. In the 1981 work Self, the dim face under the arch walls must be telling something. By resorting to such a sober and calm surrealistic approach, the artist builds up different scenes. One of which is the dream-like night, while the other is impoverished settlement combining primitive spirit and Christian spirit, collection of the two spirits. Aerolite Flying in My Room and Hey, Can You Conquer the Moon show freedom of thinking of the artist. However, a primitive and barbarian spirit is poured on top of the scene. All these elements, a canoe, the vast sea and wild land, indicate the presence of strong vital force. In these works lonely houses come in frequently. They look like tents of primitive tribes. However, the specific shapes of the houses do not matter. What matters is that they are placed in the painting as the habitat for human spirit. The 1983 work People Walking to Round Housing is a representation of the destination for soul. In 1983 works Sacrifice in the Night and Untitled, owl becomes the main character. They are lawmakers of the night, and enjoy ultimate freedom in the dark, peeping at the sleeping human world. 1980s saw popularity of western cultural icons, such as Nietzsche and Sartre. And paintings of the artist also show Christian spirit, which merges with the primitive sense of life deep in the artist's mind as one.

  From 1985 to 2004, though there was not much work, Zhang Yufang was still working on artistic creation. Until 2004, the artist began with landscape paintings to seek the spirit of life of the 1980s. Observations show that in his later creations, such spirit of life is not a bit weakened. Profound representation of life in one's works means a lot for contemporary art. However, what did they mean to 1980s? In 1981, as the primary organizer, Zhang Yufang planed First Xi'an Modern Art Exhibition, in which many works we will see today were on display. The exhibition stirred great sensation. Through works by Zhang Yufang, audience may attempt to imagine the leading theme of the then exhibition. When people were still engaging in disputes about consciousness of life. All of the images, no matter they are forms filled with primitive vital force, vast land or the flowing oceans, are expressions of the artist on individual liberation and the free consciousness of life.

  Due to reasons of the overall situation of Xi'an in 1980s, Xi'an contemporary art is absent from the history. However, from works of Zhang Yufang, which were completed years ago and are displayed in this exhibition, present us not only a chronicle of artistic creation by Mr. Zhang, but also valuable data and archives with relation to the early development of Xi'an modern art for art researchers.

  Wish Mr. Zhang's exhibition a great success!

(责任编辑:李积英)

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